To continue my research on the different types of poetry, I delved into four more types: English sonnets, Italian sonnets, rondeau, and pastoral poems.
Let’s begin with sonnets. For the most part, sonnets are written with a problem or idea in mind. Common themes found in sonnets are love, war, hardship, and change. Often times, poets give opinions on social issues or try to answer questions about life itself. Sonnets are made up of four stanzas: quatrain, sestet, octave, and rhyming couplet. A quatrain is a four line stanza, a sestet is a six line stanza, an octave is an eight line stanza, and a rhyming couplet is a consecutive two line stanza that must rhyme. Sonnets are also written with iambic pentameter, meaning that the the second word has more stress than the first. This creates a rise and fall to the sound of the sonnet, especially when spoken aloud. In addition, poetic devices are often used to paint more of a picture for the reader. There are two main types of sonnets, English and Italian. I will begin with an English sonnet.
An English sonnet, also known as a Shakespearean sonnet, is composed of three quatrain stanzas followed by a rhyming couplet. The volta, or resolution, takes place at the end of the sonnet during the rhyming couplet. English sonnets have a looser rhyme scheme. They normally follow a particular pattern: ABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GG.
Here is my example of an English sonnet about war:
The bombs thunder above
With no relief from the sound
As though the night sky is in love
With the cacophony ringing through the compound.
The stars are hidden
By the illuminated explosion
In territory that is forbidden
And our hearts suffer corrosion.
Our flag still stands tall
But as the night rages on
We worry that it will fall
As this battle is just a pawn.
Yet the sun breaks ground
And we are finally sent home-bound.
On the other side, Italian sonnets, also known as Petrarchan sonnets, are made of an octave and then a sestet. Typically, the octave introduces the problem and the sestet defines the resolution. The rhyme scheme of an Italian sonnet is ABBA, ABBA, CDCDCD.
This is my example of an Italian sonnet also about war:
Waiting at home for news
Never knowing if he is safe
Or is stuck in a country as a waif
I wait at home for him to finish his dues.
Our men should be able to refuse
Being sent to a world governed by strafe
Unrelenting and unsafe
All I can do is pray for some news.
I think back to the days when he was young
And I could hear his loud snores
Where he was just my son
With his best friend living next door
And all day they would play with BB guns
But now they’re off at war.
A rondeau poem is a poem with either ten, thirteen, or fifteen lines that have repeated rhyme throughout. In a rondeau, the first few words or phrase from the beginning of the poem is repeated throughout as a sort of refrain. It doesn’t have to be in this particular order, but here is a typical rhyme scheme where the repeated line is bolded: AABBAAABAAABBAA.
Here is my example based on singing:
Singing throughout the day
As though I am on Broadway.
For me, it creates a world
With paws accepting and uncurled.
I stay on the path to not stray
While opening my airways.
Doing so creates a display
For my audience to enter a dreamworld.
Singing throughout the day
I make no one pay.
For all I want to do is sway their hearts in a way
That leaves them feeling swirled.
As though they are hurled into a new world
One that is always happy and gay,
Singing throughout the day.
The final type of poem I learned about for this blog was pastoral poems. Pastoral poems are about rural life, typically pastures (hence the name), and present this life in a peaceful, and often romantic way. Most poets writing pastoral poems were not from the country and focused their poems on idealistic rather than realistic statures. These types of poems are often looked on as a more Utopian way of life compared to inner city living. This style of poetry often has a free verse feel to it, in that there is no particular structure to the poem.
Below is my pastoral poem:
Life and death appear as one
In a field of innocence
Uncorrupted by society
With love for nature.
The shepherd’s love
For his sheep
Is returned by their loyalty
A world separate from evil
Blessed by the family values
Found in the shepherd’s wife
And children as they grow.
For an untouched world
Remains in such a state
Until corruption rears its ugly head
And the sheep die.
Cover Photo Credit: Pixabay